Python Threading versus Multiprocessing
Threading works really well with IO, but not CPU bound processes, hence why there's an asyncio lib for IO and a MP lib. Before Py3, you could only manually create threads using the threading lib and some people who don't like asyncio still prefer to use the manual threading lib, an external lib like trio, or older packages like gevents, etc.
For an example of using threading for an IO bound process see the
pvlib.iotools.get_ecmwf_macc() method which returns the thread that calls the ECMWF api client because it is soooooo slow!
Concurrency in the Cloud
Curve ball (⚾) - threading and MP work great for a single computer, but when you are on a cluster, such as web applications, then you have more options!
In a web app, you usually have a load balancer in front of several workers who answer get requests.
Therefore you can deligate the work for both IO and CPU bound processes differently than by using either threading, MP, asyncio, trio, gevent, etc.
Celery is probably the most popular task queue for distributed resources especially for web applications.
I would guess there are task managers other than Celery, but would have to Google around to find a curated list - and many examples recommend Celery, eg: Heroku.
Note a task queue, threading, and MP all require a way for threads and processes to communicate with each other. Threads on a single machine can more easily share memory which makes them more efficient than MP. For Python threads, I typically use the standard Python Queue lib.
Multiprocessing requires some form of inter-process communication or IPC, which attempts to serialize and deserialize objects between processes. Python provides MP Queues and Pipes to exchange objects between processes. I prefer the MP Queue, because it nearly mimics the API of the standard Python Queue lib, but because it is IPC, I have to be careful to only pass in objects that can be easily serialized and deserialized like numbers, strings, sequences, and dictionaries.
Unfortunately, I don't have the expertise to say when to use an MQ verses memcache, but there are lots of articles on the internet discussing the pros/cons of each. I've used memcache and it works, but I believe for Celery they preffer MQ.
For both threads and processes, IMHO it's a good idea to keep the communication simple. I recommend only pushing the primitive types that will be needed by the target function handled by the thread and then reconstructing more complicated objects in the main branch of execution as needed. I believe this will keep the communication overhead low as well as make it easier to serialize and deserialize target arguments and avoid race conditions.
Note: Python also uses the GIL to avoid race conditions between threads. See below.
Thread Safety and Shared Memory
This is at the edge of my experience, but Python does provide tools to lock and synchronize communication between threads and processes as well as a shared memory map for multiprocessing. Explore on your own.
The Difference Between IO and CPU Bound Process
An IO bound process is like getting data from a URL, or writing a file
A CPU bound process is like a big calculation like matrix inversion, a search routine, or optimization/minimzation problem
IO bound processes use Threads because threads do not block IO bound processes - IE: you can start an IO process in a thread and execution will continue to the next line unless you tell Python to wait. AsyncIO and Trio probably use threading in the background, IDK for sure.
CPU bound processes use MP, because they need their own core to do their stuff. But unfortunately there is a lot of overhead with MP, and so the calculation needs to be really expensive to make it worthwhile.
There's no limit to the number of threads you can create, but the number of MP processes is limited to the number of cores.
These rules don't apply to distributed computing, and they may not apply in other computing languages either. IE: you can distribute both IO and CPU tasks to a task queue across a cluster. However, there may be task managers that are better suited for different types of tasks. EG: Dask is probably better for distributed computing of CPU intense processes. But honestly, IDK, I'm at the edge of my personal research and experience here, and so I would probably recommend a little more exploration ...
Python Global Interpreter Lock
The reason there's this difference between IO/CPU and threads/processes in Python specifically, and perhaps not other languages, is because Python is single threaded by default due to the Global Interpreter Lock or GIL. Other languages may or may not have similar design, IDK, however Python C-API does let you explicitly release the GIL and manage threads manually. This is what packages like NumPy/SciPy and CPython do.